Background Previous studies demonstrated increased digestive tract cancers among individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly among lung transplant recipients. We describe cancer incidence among CF and non-CF lung recipients. Methods We used data from the US transplant registry and 16 cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared cancer incidence to the general population, and competing risk methods were used for the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer. Results We evaluated 10,179 lung recipients (1681 with CF). Risk was more strongly increased in CF recipients than non-CF recipients for overall cancer (SIR 9.9 vs. 2.7) and multiple cancers including colorectal cancer (24.2 vs. 1.7), esophageal cancer (56.3 vs. 1.3), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (61.8 vs. 9.4). At five years post-transplant, colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 0.3% of CF recipients aged < 50 at transplant and 6.4% aged ≥ 50. Conclusions CF recipients have increased risk for colorectal cancer, suggesting a need for enhanced screening.