Calcium transport and calcium signalling mechanisms in bone cells have, in many cases, been discovered by study of diseases with disordered bone metabolism. Calcium matrix deposition is driven primarily by phosphate production, and disorders in bone deposition include abnormalities in membrane phosphate transport such as in chondrocalcinosis, and defects in phosphate-producing enzymes such as in hypophosphatasia. Matrix removal is driven by acidification, which dissolves the mineral. Disorders in calcium removal from bone matrix by osteoclasts cause osteopetrosis. On the other hand, although bone is central to management of extracellular calcium, bone is not a major calcium sensing organ, although calcium sensing proteins are expressed in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Intracellular calcium signals are involved in secondary control including cellular motility and survival, but the relationship of these findings to specific diseases is not clear. Intracellular calcium signals may regulate the balance of cell survival versus proliferation or anabolic functional response as part of signalling cascades that integrate the response to primary signals via cell stretch, estrogen, tyrosine kinase, and tumor necrosis factor receptors.