In terrestrial vertebrates, mineral homeostasis involves intestine, kidney, and bone and is regulated primarily by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1α,25 (OH)2D, the biologically active, hormonal form of vitamin D. The concentration of calcium ions in the circulation is maintained within a narrow range; increased absorption of Ca2+ in the intestine and decreased excretion of Ca2+ by the kidney are usually sufficient to maintain calcium balance; however, under conditions of severe calcium deficiency, Ca2+ is mobilized from bone. The concentration of serum magnesium is regulated primarily by the kidney and magnesium is involved in the synthesis of PTH.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Gastroenterology, Second Edition
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780128124604
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • 1α,25 (OH)D
  • Bone
  • Calcium
  • FRAX®
  • Magnesium
  • Osteoporosis
  • Parathyroid hormone
  • Peak bone mass
  • Recommended dietary allowance
  • Vitamin D


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