In 1980, 84 484 US women aged 34-59 y completed an independently validated dietary questionnaire. During the ensuing 6 y, 593 forearm and 65 hip fractures occurred in association with mild to moderate trauma. We observed a positive relation between caffeine intake and risk of hip but not forearm fracture. After potential risk factors were controlled for the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture for women in the top quintile of caffeine consumption was 2.95 (95% CI = 1.18-7.38, P, trend = 0.003). Alcohol intake was independently associated with increased risk of both hip and forearm fractures and with a dose-response relation. Compared with nondrinkers, women consuming ≥ 25 g alcohol/d had an RR of 2.33 (95% CI = 1.18-4.57) for hip fractures and an RR of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.09-1.74) for forearm fractures. These prospective data suggest that caffeine and alcohol consumption both increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures in middle-aged women.