Purpose: Systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive subtype of T-cell lymphoma characterized by the uniform expression of CD30. The antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin delivers the potent antimicrotubule agent monomethylauristatin E to CD30-positive malignant cells. A phase II multicenter trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory systemic ALCL. Patients and Methods: Patients with systemic ALCL and recurrent disease after at least one prior therapy received brentuximab vedotin 1.8 mg/kg intravenously every 3 weeks over 30 minutes as an outpatient infusion. The primary end point of the study was overall objective response rate as assessed by independent central review. Results: Of 58 patients treated in the study, 50 patients (86%) achieved an objective response, 33 patients (57%) achieved a complete remission (CR), and 17 patients (29%) achieved a partial remission. The median durations of overall response and CR were 12.6 and 13.2 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events in ≥ 10% of patients were neutropenia (21%), thrombocytopenia (14%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (12%). Conclusion: Brentuximab vedotin induced objective responses in the majority of patients and CRs in more than half of patients with recurrent systemic ALCL. Targeted therapy with this CD30-directed antibody-drug conjugate may be an effective treatment for relapsed or refractory systemic ALCL and warrants further studies in front-line therapy.