Breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosed in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although mortality rates have been dropping steadily due to a variety of factors including improved treatment modalities and screening, substantial racial differences in outcome between blacks and whites persist. Although differences in health care utilization and access, tumor biology, and cancer management have been elucidated as possible reasons for disparities seen, it is likely that other interactions exist. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to present a comprehensive overview of the literature on racial disparities in breast cancer outcome and highlight potential causative factors that may contribute to disparities seen among blacks and whites with breast cancer. In addition, we make research recommendations by discussing some of the remaining gaps in knowledge that may lead to further understanding of disparities and consequently improved outcomes for all women with breast cancer.