Drug-resistant epilepsy, characterized by ongoing seizures despite appropriate trials of anti-seizure medications, affects approximately one-third of people with epilepsy. Brain stimulation has recently become available as an alternative treatment option to reduce symptomatic seizures in short and long-term follow-up studies. Several questions remain on how to optimally develop patient-specific treatments and manage therapy over the long term. This review aims to discuss the clinical use and mechanisms of action of Responsive Neural Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy and highlight recent advances that may both improve outcomes and present new challenges. Finally, a rational approach to device selection is presented based on current mechanistic understanding, clinical evidence, and device features.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-37
Number of pages11
JournalBiomedical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Epilepsy
  • Neurostimulation
  • Responsive neural stimulation
  • Seizure


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