Genetic, biochemical, pathological, and biomarker data demonstrate that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, including the initiation and progressive buildup of insoluble forms of beta-amyloid (Aβ), appears to begin ~10–15 years prior to the onset of cognitive decline associated with AD. Metabolic dysfunction, a prominent feature of the evolving brain pathology, is reflected in a decline of total glucose utilization. Despite decades of interest in declining glucose use in AD no detailed consideration had been given to the possibility that this decline is not just a decline in energy consumption but rather in glycolysis alone. Glycolysis is a multi-step process that prepares the glucose molecule for oxidative phosphorylation and the generation of energy. In the normal brain, glycolysis exceeds that required for the needs of oxidative phosphorylation. Because it is occurring in a setting with adequate oxygen available for oxidative phosphorylation it is often referred to as aerobic glycolysis (AG). AG is a biomarker of a group of metabolic functions broadly supporting biosynthesis and neuroprotection. The distribution of AG in normal young adults correlates spatially with Aβ deposition in AD patients and cognitively normal individuals with elevated Aβ. In transgenic mice extracellular fluid Aβ and lactate, a marker of AG, vary in parallel regionally and with changes in activity. Reducing neuronal activity locally in transgenic mice attenuates plaque formation suggesting that plaque formation is an activity-dependent process associated with aerobic glycolysis.
- Aerobic glycolysis
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Cerebral metabolic rate of glucose
- Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen
- Positron emission tomography