PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The transforming growth factor-β family and bone morphogenetic proteins are critical regulators of many cell and tissue functions, including development and tissue homeostasis. Aberrant regulation of these growth factors is an important element of cancer and various connective-tissue diseases. These growth factors are resident in the extracellular matrix and their signaling is controlled by binding to matrix proteins. This review will highlight some of the recent molecular advances in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Regulation of presentation of these factors controls their function. The molecular mechanisms of growth-factor regulation include reversible and irreversible binding to antagonists, matrix interactions with precursor forms of active growth factors, and activation of growth factors by enzymic digestion of pro-factors or antagonists. SUMMARY: Growth factors have enormous potential to help repair or even regenerate tissues and organs. They have become prime candidates for use in tissue engineering to stimulate repair of tissues in situ or recreate tissues for implantation. Commercial products have become available recently for the use of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 in orthopaedics, transforming growth factor-β in skin healing, and an antagonist transforming growth factor-β shows great promise in the treatment of aortic aneurysms in Marfan syndrome.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Current Opinion in Orthopaedics|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2006|
- Bone morphogenetic proteins
- Matrix interactions
- Transforming growth factor-β
- Type II procollagen