Bone morphogenetic proteins are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of cytokines and consist of a group of at least 15 morphogens involved in intracellular messaging through complex bone morphogenetic protein receptor mediated Smad signaling. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 knockout mice die shortly after birth due to uremia, demonstrating that this morphogenetic protein is essential for renal development. Recent investigations have characterized renal bone morphogenetic protein-7 receptors, shown exogenous bone morphogenetic protein-7 to prevent fibrogenesis associated with ureteral obstruction, indicated a loss of renal bone morphogenetic protein-7 associated with diabetic nephropathy, and an improvement in glomerular pathology in rodent streptozocin-induced diabetes with bone morphogenetic protein-7 treatment. In addition, this morphogenetic protein has been shown to reduce glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a murine model of lupus nephritis as well as decrease the peritrabecular fibrosis associated with murine high turnover renal osteodystrophy. Finally, we review the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 on vascular calcification in an animal model, a potential complication of this therapy given its osseous morphogenetic effect.