Type I IFN-producing cells (IPC) are sentinels of viral infections. Identification and functional characterization of these cells have been difficult because of their small numbers in blood and tissues and their complex cell surface phenotype. To overcome this problem in mice, mAbs recognizing IPC-specific cell surface molecules have been generated. In this study, we report the identification of new Abs specific for mouse IPC, which recognize the bone marrow stromal cell Ag 2 (BST2). Interestingly, previously reported IPC-specific Abs 120G8 and plasmacytoid dendritic cell Ag-1 also recognize BST2. BST2 is predominantly specific for mouse IPC in naive mice, but is up-regulated on most cell types following stimulation with type I IFNs and IFN-γ. The activation-induced promiscuous expression of BST2 described in this study has important implications for the use of anti-BST2 Abs in identification and depletion of IPC. Finally, we show that BST2 resides within an intracellular compartment corresponding to the Golgi apparatus, and may be involved in trafficking secreted cytokines in IPC.