1. Bone disease is a common problem in patients with chronic liver disease and liver transplants. 2. The cause of bone disease in these patients is multifactorial. 3. Bone disease worsens initially after liver transplantation, with subsequent improvement over time. However, bone disease in liver transplant recipients is common with long-term follow-up. 4. Evaluation of these patients should include metabolic and hormonal evaluations in conjunction with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or bone mineral density evaluation. 5. Treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and hormonal supplements should be considered when appropriate for patients awaiting and after liver transplantation. The use of bisphosphanates and calcitonin also should be considered, although published studies in these populations are few in number.