Body composition measurements and clinical outcomes in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma – analysis from SWOG S1505

Davendra P.S. Sohal, Robert D. Boutin, Leon Lenchik, Jiyoon Kim, M. Shaalan Beg, Andrea Wang-Gillam, James Lloyd Wade, Katherine A. Guthrie, E. Gabriela Chiorean, Syed A. Ahmad, Andrew M. Lowy, Philip Agop Philip, Victor Tsu Shih Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Sarcopenic obesity and muscle attenuation have been associated with survival in patients with borderline resectable and advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA); however, these relationships are unknown for patients with resectable PDA. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as measured on baseline computed tomography (CT) and the overall survival (OS) of participants with resectable PDA in a secondary analysis of the Southwest Oncology Group S1505 clinical trial (identifier: NCT02562716). Methods: The S1505 phase II clinical trial enrolled patients with resectable PDA who were randomized to receive modified FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel as perioperative chemotherapy, followed by surgical resection. Baseline axial CT images at the L3 level were analyzed with externally validated software, and measurements were recorded for skeletal muscle area and skeletal muscle density, visceral adipose tissue area (VATA) and density, and subcutaneous adipose tissue area and density. The relationships between CT metrics and OS were analyzed using Cox regression models, with adjustment for baseline participant characteristics. Results: Of 98 eligible participants with available baseline abdominal CT, 8 were excluded because of imaging quality (eg, orthopedic hardware), resulting in 90 evaluable cases: 51 men (57.0%; mean age, 63.2 years [SD, 8.5]; mean body mass index [BMI], 29.3 kg/m2 [SD, 6.4]), 80 White (89.0%), 6 Black (7.0%), and 4 unknown race (4.0%). Sarcopenia was present in 32 participants (35.9%), and sarcopenic obesity was present in 10 participants (11.2%). Univariable analyses for the 6 variables of interest indicated that the standardized mean difference (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.98; P =.04) was statistically significantly associated with OS. In models adjusted for sex, race, age, BMI, performance score, contrast use, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity, VATA was statistically significantly associated with OS (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.00-2.51; P =.05). No difference was observed in OS between participants according to sarcopenic obesity or sarcopenia categories. The median OS estimates were 25.1 months for participants without sarcopenic obesity, 18.6 months for participants with sarcopenic obesity, 23.6 months for participants without sarcopenia, and 27.9 months for participants with sarcopenia. Conclusion: This was the first study to systematically evaluate body composition parameters in a prospective multicenter trial of patients with resectable PDA who received perioperative chemotherapy. Visceral adipose tissue was associated with survival; however, there was no association between OS and sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity. Further studies should evaluate these findings in more detail.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-235
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Measurements
  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

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