Direct measurements of deep-brain and body-core temperature were performed on rats to determine the influence of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on brain temperature regulation under static and dynamic conditions. Static changes of CBF were achieved using different anesthetics (chloral hydrate, CH; α-chloralose, αCS; and isoflurane, IF) with αCS causing larger decreases in CBF than CH and IF; dynamic changes were achieved by inducing transient hypercapnia (5% CO2 in 40% O2 and 55% N2). Initial deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials were anesthetic-type dependent with the largest differential observed with rats under αCS anesthesia (ca. 2°C). Hypercapnia induction raised rat brain temperature under all three anesthesia regimes, but by different anesthetic-dependent amounts correlated with the initial differentials-αCS anesthesia resulted in the largest brain temperature increase (0.32 ± 0.08°C), while CH and IF anesthesia lead to smaller increases (0.12 ± 0.03 and 0.16 ± 0.05°C, respectively). The characteristic temperature transition time for the hypercapnia-induced temperature increase was 2-3 min under CH and IF anesthesia and ~4 min under αCS anesthesia. We conclude that both, the deep-brain/body-core temperature differential and the characteristic temperature transition time correlate with CBF: a lower CBF promotes higher deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials and, upon hypercapnia challenge, longer characteristic transition times to increased temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)701-710
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2009


  • Anesthesia
  • Brain metabolism
  • Brain temperature
  • Cerebral blood flow (CBF)
  • Hypercapnia
  • Temperature regulation


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