The protease inhibitor (PI) ritonavir (RTV) has been associated with elevated resting lipolytic rate, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance/glucose intolerance. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between lipolysis and fatty acid (FA) oxidation during rest, moderate exercise and recovery, and measures of insulin sensitivity/glucose tolerance and fat redistribution in HIV-positive subjects taking RTV (n = 12), HAART but no PI (n = 10), and HIV-seronegative controls (n = 10). Stable isotope tracers [1- 13C]palmitate and [1,1,2,3,3-2H5]glycerol were continuously infused with blood and breath collection during 1-h rest, 70-min submaximal exercise (50% V̇O2 peak), and 1-h recovery. Body composition was evaluated using DEXA, MRI, and MRS, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests with insulin monitoring were used to evaluate glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Lipolytic and FA oxidation rates were similar during rest and recovery in all groups; however, they were lower during moderate exercise in both HIV-infected groups [glycerol Ra: HIV + RTV 5.1 ± 1.2 vs. HIV + no PI 5.9 ± 2.8 vs. Control 7.4 ± 2.2 μmol·kg fat-free mass (FFM)-1·min-1; palmitate oxidation: HIV + RTV 1.6 ± 0.8 vs. HIV + no PI 1.6 ± 0.8 vs. Control 2.5 ± 1.7 μmol·kg FFM·min, P < 0.01]. Fasting and orally-challenged glucose and insulin values were similar among groups. Lipolytic and FA oxidation rates were blunted during moderate exercise in HIV-positive subjects taking HAART. Lower FA oxidation during exercise was primarily due to impaired plasma FA oxidation, with a minor contribution from lower nonplasma FA oxidation. Regional differences in adipose tissue lipolysis during rest and moderate exercise may be important in HIV and warrant further study.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|State||Published - Mar 1 2007|
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Insulin resistance
- Mass spectrometry
- Metabolic syndrome