Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and the cold pressor test: The gensalt replication study in rural North China

Qi Zhao, Dongfeng Gu, Jichun Chen, Jianxin Li, Jie Cao, Fanghong Lu, Dongshuang Guo, Renping Wang, Jinjin Shen, Jing Chen, Chung Shiuan Chen, Katherine T. Mills, Karen Schwander, Dabeeru C. Rao, Jiang He

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Abstract

background In the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study, we observed that blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and the cold pressor test (CPT) varied greatly among individuals. We conducted a replication study to confirm our previous findings among 695 study participants. methods The dietary intervention included a 7-day low sodium (51.3 mmol/day), a 7-day high sodium (307.8 mmol/day), and a 7-day high sodium with potassium supplementation (307.8 mmol sodium and 60 mmol potassium/ day). BP measurements were obtained during the baseline and each intervention phase. During the CPT, BP was measured before and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute. results Systolic and diastolic BP responses (mean ± SD (range), mm Hg) were 8.1 ± 8.4 (-39.1 to 18.2) and -3.5 ± 5.1 (-25.1 to 11.1) to low sodium, 9.1 ± 8.4 (-13.3 to 33.1) and 4.0 ± 5.4 (-16.0 to 20.7) to high sodium, and -4.6 ± 5.8 (-31.8 to 11.6) and -1.9 ± 4.3 (-16.9 to 14.2) to potassium supplementation, respectively (all P < 0.0001 for comparison with each former phase). The mean maximum systolic and diastolic BP responses to the CPT were 16.5 ± 10.5 (-15.3 to 63.3) and 7.6 ± 6.1 (-8.7 to 39.3), respectively (all P < 0.0001). conclusions Our study indicates that there are large variations in BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and to the CPT among individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-80
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Cold pressor test
  • Dietary potassium
  • Hypertension
  • Salt sensitivity
  • Sodium

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    Zhao, Q., Gu, D., Chen, J., Li, J., Cao, J., Lu, F., Guo, D., Wang, R., Shen, J., Chen, J., Chen, C. S., Mills, K. T., Schwander, K., Rao, D. C., & He, J. (2014). Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and the cold pressor test: The gensalt replication study in rural North China. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(1), 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpt163