There are two major myeloid pulmonary dendritic cell (DC) populations: CD103+ DCs and CD11bhigh DCs. In this study, we investigated in detail the origins of both myeloid DC pools using multiple experimental approaches. We show that, in resting lung, Ly-6C highCCR2high monocytes repopulated CD103+ DCs using a CCR2-dependent mechanism, and these DCs preferentially retained residual CCR2 in the lung, whereas, conversely, Ly-6ClowCCR2low monocytes repopulated CD11bhigh DCs. CX3CR1 was required to generate normal numbers of pulmonary CD11bhigh DCs, possibly because Ly-6Clow monocytes in the circulation, which normally express high levels of CX3CR1, failed to express bcl-2 and may have diminished survival in the circulation in the absence of CX3CR1. Overall, these data demonstrate that the two circulating subsets of monocytes give rise to distinct tissue DC populations.