Continuous measurements of pressure and temperature within the intracranial, intraocular, and intravascular spaces provide essential diagnostic information for the treatment of traumatic brain injury, glaucoma, and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Optical sensors are attractive because of their inherent compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Existing implantable optical components use permanent, nonresorbable materials that must be surgically extracted after use. Bioresorbable alternatives, introduced here, bypass this requirement, thereby eliminating the costs and risks of surgeries. Here, millimeter-scale bioresorbable Fabry-Perot interferometers and two dimensional photonic crystal structures enable precise, continuous measurements of pressure and temperature. Combined mechanical and optical simulations reveal the fundamental sensing mechanisms. In vitro studies and histopathological evaluations quantify the measurement accuracies, operational lifetimes, and biocompatibility of these systems. In vivo demonstrations establish clinically relevant performance attributes. The materials, device designs, and fabrication approaches outlined here establish broad foundational capabilities for diverse classes of bioresorbable optical sensors.