Biopsychosocial Factors Associated With Pain and Pain-Related Outcomes in Adults and Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Multivariable Analysis of the GRNDaD Multicenter Registry

Martha O. Kenney, Samuel Wilson, Nirmish Shah, Andrey Bortsov, Wally R. Smith, Jane Little, Sophie Lanzkron, Julie Kanter, Susan Padrino, Amma Owusu-Ansah, Alice Cohen, Payal Desai, Deepa Manwani, Sana Saif Ur Rehman, Ward Hagar, Francis Keefe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pain is the primary symptomatic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited hemoglobinopathy. The characteristics that influence pain experiences and outcomes in SCD are not fully understood. The primary objective of this study was to use multivariable modeling to examine associations of biopsychosocial variables with a disease-specific measure of pain interference known as pain impact. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Global Research Network for Data and Discovery national SCD registry. A total of 657 children and adults with SCD were included in the analysis. This sample was 60% female with a median age of 34 (interquartile range 26–42 years) and a chronic pain prevalence of 64%. The model accounted for 58% of the variance in pain impact. Low social (P < .001) and emotional (P < .001) functioning, increasing age (P = .004), low income (P < .001), and high acute painful episodes (P = .007) were most strongly associated with high pain impact in our multivariable model. Additionally, multivariable modeling of pain severity and physical function in 2 comparable samples of registry participants revealed that increasing age and low social functioning were also strongly associated with higher pain severity and low physical functioning. Overall, the results suggest that social and emotional functioning are more strongly associated with pain impact in individuals with SCD than previously studied biological modifiers such as SCD genotype, hemoglobin, and percentage fetal hemoglobin. Future research using longitudinally collected data is needed to confirm these findings. Perspective: This study reveals that psychosocial (ie, social and emotional functioning) and demographic (ie, age) variables may play an important role in predicting pain and pain-related outcomes in SCD. Our findings can inform future multicenter prospective longitudinal studies aimed at identifying modifiable psychosocial predictors of adverse pain outcomes in SCD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-164
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Pain
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Sickle cell disease
  • biopsychosocial pain model
  • chronic pain
  • pain interference
  • pain severity

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