Heart failure (HF) is characterized by the elaboration of a portfolio of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators that are considered to contribute to disease progression by virtue of the deleterious effects that these molecules exert on the heart and circulation. Recent studies have suggested that these inflammatory mediators may serve as relevant markers of disease severity and HF prognosis. Moreover, there is evidence that changes in the levels of inflammatory biomarkers may prove useful in following the change in patient clinical status following institution of appropriate HF therapy. This review will focus on the emerging role of inflammatory biomarkers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, Creactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in patients with HF.
- C-reactive protein (CRP)
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- Heart failure
- Interleukin-6 (IL-6)
- Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)