Biodistribution, excretion, and toxicity of nanoparticles

Yongfeng Zhao, Deborah Sultan, Yongjian Liu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Nanoparticles, as multifunctional platforms, have been widely used for biomedical applications including diagnosis, drug delivery, treatment, and theranostics. With the current research focusing on translation, a new strategy needs to be developed to shift the paradigm of cancer nanomedicine from mouse to human. Thus the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and toxicity of nanoparticles will be taken into account prior to the design of nanoparticles and during thorough in vivo studies. In this chapter, we first discussed the biodistribution of nanoparticles and the influencing factors including surface coating materials, sizes, shapes, rigidity, and the administration routes. Next, we described the excretion routes for nanoparticles including mononuclear phagocytic system clearance and renal clearance. We then briefly discussed the toxicity of nanoparticles in major organs including liver, kidney, heart, and brain. Finally, we summarized the current challenges in translational nanomedicine and proposed the perspectives for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTheranostic Bionanomaterials
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9780128153413
ISBN (Print)9780128153420
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Biodistribution
  • Excretion
  • Nanoparticles
  • Toxicity


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