Biochemical Recurrence Surrogacy for Clinical Outcomes after Radiotherapy for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

Soumyajit Roy, Tahmineh Romero, Jeff M. Michalski, Felix Y. Feng, Jason A. Efstathiou, Colleen A.F. Lawton, Michel Bolla, Philippe Maingon, Theo De Reijke, David Joseph, Wee Loon Ong, Matthew R. Sydes, David P. Dearnaley, Alison C. Tree, Nathalie Carrier, Abdenour Nabid, Luis Souhami, Luca Incrocci, Wilma D. Heemsbergen, Floris J. PosAlmudena Zapatero, Araceli Guerrero, Ana Alvarez, Carmen Gonzalez San-Segundo, Xavier Maldonado, Robert E. Reiter, Matthew B. Rettig, Nicholas G. Nickols, Michael L. Steinberg, Luca F. Valle, T. Martin Ma, Matthew J. Farrell, Beth K. Neilsen, Jesus E. Juarez, Jie Deng, Sitaram Vangala, Norbert Avril, Angela Y. Jia, Nicholas G. Zaorsky, Yilun Sun, Daniel Spratt, Amar U. Kishan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


PURPOSEThe surrogacy of biochemical recurrence (BCR) for overall survival (OS) in localized prostate cancer remains controversial. Herein, we evaluate the surrogacy of BCR using different surrogacy analytic methods.MATERIALS AND METHODSIndividual patient data from 11 trials evaluating radiotherapy dose escalation, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use, and ADT prolongation were obtained. Surrogate candidacy was assessed using the Prentice criteria (including landmark analyses) and the two-stage meta-analytic approach (estimating Kendall's tau and the R2). Biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCRFS, time from random assignment to BCR or any death) and time to BCR (TTBCR, time from random assignment to BCR or cancer-specific deaths censoring for noncancer-related deaths) were assessed.RESULTSOverall, 10,741 patients were included. Dose escalation, addition of short-term ADT, and prolongation of ADT duration significantly improved BCR (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.79]; HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.59]; and HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.48 to 0.61], respectively). Adding short-term ADT (HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99]) and prolonging ADT (HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94]) significantly improved OS, whereas dose escalation did not (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.11]). BCR at 48 months was associated with inferior OS in all three groups (HR, 2.46 [95% CI, 2.08 to 2.92]; HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.35 to 1.70]; and HR, 2.31 [95% CI, 2.04 to 2.61], respectively). However, after adjusting for BCR at 48 months, there was no significant treatment effect on OS (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.27]; HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.06] and 1.00 [95% CI, 0.90 to 1.12], respectively). The patient-level correlation (Kendall's tau) for BCRFS and OS ranged between 0.59 and 0.69, and that for TTBCR and OS ranged between 0.23 and 0.41. The R2 values for trial-level correlation of the treatment effect on BCRFS and TTBCR with that on OS were 0.563 and 0.160, respectively.CONCLUSIONBCRFS and TTBCR are prognostic but failed to satisfy all surrogacy criteria. Strength of correlation was greater when noncancer-related deaths were considered events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5005-5014
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number32
StatePublished - Nov 10 2023


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