Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a promising technique for non-invasive and spatially targeted neuromodulation and treatment of brain diseases. Acoustic lenses were designed to correct the skull-induced beam aberration, but these designs could only generate static focused ultrasound beams inside the brain. Here, we designed and 3D printed binary acoustic metasurfaces (BAMs) for skull aberration correction and dynamic ultrasound beam focusing. BAMs were designed by binarizing the phase distribution at the surface of the metasurfaces. The phase distribution was calculated based on time reversal to correct the skull-induced phase aberration. The binarization enabled the ultrasound beam to be dynamically steered along wave propagation direction by adjusting the operation frequency of the incident ultrasound wave. The designed BAMs were manufactured by 3D printing with two coding bits, a polylactic acid unit for bit “1” and a water unit for bit “0.” BAMs for single- and multi-point focusing through the human skull were designed, 3D printed, and validated numerically and experimentally. The proposed BAMs with subwavelength scale in thickness are simple to design, easy to fabric, and capable of correcting skull aberration and achieving dynamic beam steering.

Original languageEnglish
Article number984953
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022


  • aberration correction
  • acoustic lens
  • beam steering
  • binary acoustic metasurface
  • dynamic focusing
  • neuromodulation
  • transcranial focused ultrasound


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