Bezlotoxumab for Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients at Increased Risk for Recurrence

Dale N. Gerding, Ciaran P. Kelly, Galia Rahav, Christine Lee, Erik R. Dubberke, Princy N. Kumar, Bruce Yacyshyn, Dina Kao, Karen Eves, Misoo C. Ellison, Mary E. Hanson, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr

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35 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B indicated to prevent C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence (rCDI) in adults at high risk for rCDI. This post hoc analysis of pooled monocolonal antibodies for C. difficile therapy (MODIFY) I/II data assessed bezlotoxumab efficacy in participants with characteristics associated with increased risk for rCDI. Methods. The analysis population was the modified intent-to-treat population who received bezlotoxumab or placebo (n = 1554) by risk factors for rCDI that were prespecified in the statistical analysis plan: age =65 years, history of CDI, compromised immunity, severe CDI, and ribotype 027/078/244. The proportion of participants with rCDI in 12 weeks, fecal microbiota transplant procedures, 30-day all cause and CDI-associated hospital readmissions, and mortality at 30 and 90 days after randomization were presented. Results. The majority of enrolled participants (75.6%) had =1 risk factor; these participants were older and a higher proportion had comorbidities compared with participants with no risk factors. The proportion of placebo participants who experienced rCDI exceeded 30% for each risk factor compared with 20.9% among those without a risk factor, and the rCDI rate increased with the number of risk factors (1 risk factor: 31.3%; =3 risk factors: 46.1%). Bezlotoxumab reduced rCDI, fecal microbiota transplants, and CDI-associated 30-day readmissions in participants with risk factors for rCDI. Conclusions. The risk factors prespecified in the MODIFY statistical analysis plan are appropriate to identify patients at high risk for rCDI. While participants with =3 risk factors had the greatest reduction of rCDI with bezlotoxumab, those with 1 or 2 risk factors may also benefit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-656
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume67
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 16 2018

Keywords

  • C. difficile infection
  • CDI
  • bezlotoxumab.
  • recurrence

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    Gerding, D. N., Kelly, C. P., Rahav, G., Lee, C., Dubberke, E. R., Kumar, P. N., Yacyshyn, B., Kao, D., Eves, K., Ellison, M. C., Hanson, M. E., Guris, D., & Dorr, M. B. (2018). Bezlotoxumab for Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients at Increased Risk for Recurrence. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 67(5), 649-656. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy171