Beyond navier stokes: Burnett equations for flow simulations in continuum-transition regime

Ramesh K. Agarwal, Keon Young Yun, Ramesh Balakrishnanr

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

4 Scopus citations


For calculation of hypersonic flows about space vehicles in low earth orbits or flows in microchannels of microelectromechanical devices, the local Knudsen number lies in the continuum-transition regime. Navier-Stokese quationsa re not adequatet o model these flows since they are based on small deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium. To model these flows, a number of extended hydrodynamics or generalized hydrodynamics (G-H) models have been proposed over the past fifty years, along with the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) approach. One of these models is the Burnett equations which are obtained from the Chapman-Enskog expansion of the Boltzmann equation (with Knudsen number as a small parameter) to O(Kn2). With the currently available computing power, it has been possible in recent years to numerically solve the Burnett equations, However, attempts at solving the Burnett equations have uncovered many physical and numerical difficulties with the Burnett model. As a result several improvements to the conventional Burnett equations have been proposed in recent years to address both the physical and numerical issues; two of the most well known are the “Augmented Burnett Equations” and the “BGK-Burnett Equations.” This paper traces the history of the Burnett model and describes some of the recent developments. Numerical solutions in l-D, 2-D, and 3-D are provided to assesst he accuracy and applicability of Burnett equations for modeling flows in the continuum-transition regime. The important issue of surface boundary conditions is addressed. Computations are compared with the available experimental data, Navier-Stokes calculations, Burnett solutions of other investigators, and DSMC solutions as much as possible.

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 1999
Event30th Fluid Dynamics Conference, 1999 - Norfolk, United States
Duration: Jun 28 1999Jul 1 1999


Conference30th Fluid Dynamics Conference, 1999
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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