Best practices for fNIRS publications

Meryem A. Yücel, Alexander V. Lühmann, Felix Scholkmann, Judit Gervain, Ippeita Dan, Hasan Ayaz, David Boas, Robert J. Cooper, Joseph Culver, Clare E. Elwell, Adam Eggebrecht, Maria A. Franceschini, Christophe Grova, Fumitaka Homae, Frédéric Lesage, Hellmuth Obrig, Ilias Tachtsidis, Sungho Tak, Yunjie Tong, Alessandro TorricelliHeidrun Wabnitz, Martin Wolf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

219 Scopus citations


The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the neurosciences has been expanding over the last 40 years. Today, it is addressing a wide range of applications within different populations and utilizes a great variety of experimental paradigms. With the rapid growth and the diversification of research methods, some inconsistencies are appearing in the way in which methods are presented, which can make the interpretation and replication of studies unnecessarily challenging. The Society for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy has thus been motivated to organize a representative (but not exhaustive) group of leaders in the field to build a consensus on the best practices for describing the methods utilized in fNIRS studies. Our paper has been designed to provide guidelines to help enhance the reliability, repeatability, and traceability of reported fNIRS studies and encourage best practices throughout the community. A checklist is provided to guide authors in the preparation of their manuscripts and to assist reviewers when evaluating fNIRS papers. The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012101
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • functional near-infrared spectroscopy
  • guidelines
  • publication best practices


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