Benefit of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Reducing Hypoglycemia Is Sustained Through 12 Months of Use among Older Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

Kellee M. Miller, Lauren G. Kanapka, Michael R. Rickels, Andrew J. Ahmann, Grazia Aleppo, Lynn Ang, Anuj Bhargava, Bruce W. Bode, Anders Carlson, Naomi S. Chaytor, Gail Gannon, Robin Goland, Irl B. Hirsch, Lisa Kiblinger, Davida Kruger, Yogish C. Kudva, Carol J. Levy, Janet B. McGill, Grenye O'Malley, Anne L. PetersLouis H. Philipson, Athena Philis-Tsimikas, Rodica Pop-Busui, Maamoun Salam, Viral N. Shah, Michael J. Thompson, Francesco Vendrame, Alandra Verdejo, Ruth S. Weinstock, Laura Young, Richard Pratley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate glycemic outcomes in the Wireless Innovation for Seniors with Diabetes Mellitus (WISDM) randomized clinical trial (RCT) participants during an observational extension phase. Research Design and Methods: WISDM RCT was a 26-week RCT comparing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in 203 adults aged ?60 years with type 1 diabetes. Of the 198 participants who completed the RCT, 100 (98%) CGM group participants continued CGM (CGM-CGM cohort) and 94 (98%) BGM group participants initiated CGM (BGM-CGM cohort) for an additional 26 weeks. Results: CGM was used a median of >90% of the time at 52 weeks in both cohorts. In the CGM-CGM cohort, median time <70 mg/dL decreased from 5.0% at baseline to 2.6% at 26 weeks and remained stable with a median of 2.8% at 52 weeks (P < 0.001 baseline to 52 weeks). Participants spent more time in range 70-180 mg/dL (TIR) (mean 56% vs. 64%; P < 0.001) and had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (mean 7.6% [59 mmol/mol] vs. 7.4% [57 mmol/mol]; P = 0.01) from baseline to 52 weeks. In BGM-CGM, from 26 to 52 weeks median time <70 mg/dL decreased from 3.9% to 1.9% (P < 0.001), TIR increased from 56% to 60% (P = 0.006) and HbA1c decreased from 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) to 7.3% (57 mmol/mol) (P = 0.025). In BGM-CGM, a severe hypoglycemic event was reported for nine participants while using BGM during the RCT and for two participants during the extension phase with CGM (P = 0.02). Conclusions: CGM use reduced hypoglycemia without increasing hyperglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. These data provide further evidence for fully integrating CGM into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-434
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • CGM use
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Older adults


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