In recent years, advances in the treatment and management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have improved their life expectancy and quality of life. However, lupus nephritis (LN) still represents a major life-threatening complication of the disease. Belimumab (BEL), a fully human monoclonal IgG1λ antibody neutralizing soluble B cell activating factor, was approved more than ten years ago as add-on therapy in adults and pediatric patients with a highly active, autoantibody-positive disease despite standard of care (SoC). Recently, the superiority of the addition of BEL to SoC was also demonstrated in LN. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the study landscape, available therapeutic options for SLE (focusing on BEL in renal and non-renal SLE), and new perspectives in the treatment field of this disease. A personalized treatment approach will likely become available with the advent of novel therapeutic agents for SLE and LN.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2072143
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022


  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • belimumab
  • immunosuppressives
  • lupus nephritis


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