BCQ+: A body constitution questionnaire to assess Yang-Xu: Part II: Evaluation of reliability and validity

Li Li Chen, Jui Shan Lin, Jun Dai Lin, Chih Hung Chang, Hsien Wen Kuo, Wen Miin Liang, Yi Chang Su

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Introduction: Integrated medicine has become an important issue in this century. In order to bridge the gap between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and modern medicine, we have established a first final version of a Yang-Xu constitution questionnaire, the BCQ+, in a previous study. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the reliability and validity of the BCQ+. Participants and Methods: A total of 1,310 eligible participants, aged between 20-60, no disease onset in the past month, who received health examination in teaching hospitals were recruited. The BCQ+ was developed and psychometrically evaluated to ascertain and validate the factor structure of the BCQ+. Furthermore, the reliability and validity of the BCQ+ were examined. Results: 19 items from the BCQ+ were developed. Exploratory factor analysis identified 5 primary domains that represent the Yang-Xu constitution and correspond to the diminishing energy levels of 5 different body areas: head, chest, limbs, abdominal cavity, and body surface. Cronbach's αranged between 0.55-0.88 and the intraclass correlation coefficients were >0.7 for most of the 19 questions. The diagnoses of Yang-Xu by the BCQ+ and an experienced TCM doctor were consistent. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was used as an indicator of concurrent validity of the BCQ+, and it was found that higher Yang-Xu scores were associated with a lower SBP. Conclusions: Five domains with 19 items in the BCQ+ were developed. The BCQ+ is a valid and potentially useful tool for evaluating the Yang-Xu constitution in clinical practice and research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-27
Number of pages8
JournalForschende Komplementarmedizin
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2009


  • Constitution
  • Questionnaire
  • Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
  • Yang-Xu


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