Objective: To determine whether baseline confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) optic disc topographic measurements are associated with the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals with ocular hypertension. Methods: Eight hundred sixty-five eyes from 438 participants in the CSLO Ancillary Study to the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study with good-quality baseline CSLO images were included in this study. Each baseline CSLO parameter was assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models to determine its association with the development of POAG. Results: Forty-one eyes from 36 CSLO Ancillary Study participants developed POAG. Several baseline topographic optic disc measurements were significantly associated with the development of POAG in both univariate and multivariate analyses, including larger cup-disc area ratio, mean cup depth, mean height contour, cup volume, reference plane height, and smaller rim area, rim area to disc area, and rim volume. In addition, classification as "outside normal limits" by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph classification and the Moorfields Regression Analysis classifications (overall, global, temporal inferior, nasal inferior, and superior temporal regions) was significantly associated with the development of POAG. Within the follow-up period of this analysis, the positive predictive value of CSLO indexes ranged from 14% (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph classification and Moorfields Regression Analysis overall classification) to 40% for Moorfields Regression Analysis temporal superior classification. Conclusions: Several baseline topographic optic disc measurements alone or when combined with baseline clinical and demographic factors were significantly associated with the development of POAG among Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study participants. Longer follow-up is required to evaluate the true predictive accuracy of CSLO measures.