Bacterial Infections in Neonates Following Mupirocin-Based MRSA Decolonization: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Rebecca Pierce, Kristina Bryant, Alexis Elward, Justin Lessler, Aaron M. Milstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To characterize the risk of infection after MRSA decolonization with intranasal mupirocin. DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 3 urban hospitals in the United States ranging in size from 45 to 100 beds. METHODS MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from NICU admissions occurring from January 2007 to December 2014, during which a targeted decolonization strategy was used for MRSA control. In 2 time-to-event analyses, MRSA-colonized neonates were observed from the date of the first MRSA-positive surveillance screen until (1) the first occurrence of novel gram-positive cocci in sterile culture or discharge or (2) the first occurrence of novel gram-negative bacilli in sterile culture or discharge. Mupirocin exposure was treated as time varying. RESULTS A total of 522 MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from 16,144 neonates admitted to site NICUs. Of the MRSA-colonized neonates, 384 (74%) received mupirocin. Average time from positive culture to mupirocin treatment was 3.5 days (standard deviation, 7.2 days). The adjusted hazard of gram-positive cocci infection was 64% lower among mupirocin-exposed versus mupirocin-unexposed neonates (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.76), whereas the adjusted hazard ratio of gram-negative bacilli infection comparing mupirocin-exposed and -unexposed neonates was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.42-2.62). CONCLUSIONS In this multicentered cohort of MRSA-colonized neonates, mupirocin-based decolonization treatment appeared to decrease the risk of infection with select gram-positive organisms as intended, and the treatment was not significantly associated with risk of subsequent infections with organisms not covered by mupirocin's spectrum of activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)930-936
Number of pages7
JournalInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


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