Ischemia/reperfusion injury–mediated (IRI-mediated) primary graft dysfunction (PGD) adversely affects both short- and long-term outcomes after lung transplantation, a procedure that remains the only treatment option for patients suffering from end-stage respiratory failure. While B cells are known to regulate adaptive immune responses, their role in lung IRI is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated by intravital imaging that B cells are rapidly recruited to injured lungs, where they extravasate into the parenchyma. Using hilar clamping and transplant models, we observed that lung-infiltrating B cells produce the monocyte chemokine CCL7 in a TLR4-TRIF–dependent fashion, a critical step contributing to classical monocyte (CM) recruitment and subsequent neutrophil extravasation, resulting in worse lung function. We found that synergistic BCR-TLR4 activation on B cells is required for the recruitment of CMs to the injured lung. Finally, we corroborated our findings in reperfused human lungs, in which we observed a correlation between B cell infiltration and CM recruitment after transplantation. This study describes a role for B cells as critical orchestrators of lung IRI. As B cells can be depleted with currently available agents, our study provides a rationale for clinical trials investigating B cell–targeting therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere170118
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 2024


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