The initiation, intensity, and duration of T cell-directed inflammatory responses are dependent upon the coordination of both activating and inhibitory signals mediated by specific receptors on the T lymphocyte. The recently described receptor, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), has been demonstrated to have an important role in limiting the duration of inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. In this study, we have examined the role of BTLA on the proliferation, recruitment, and survival of T cells in response to inhaled allergen. We find that there is decreased cell death in T cells from BTLAdeficient mice, whereas proliferation and recruitment to the lungs are unchanged. Thus, the regulation of cell death through BTLA signaling is a key determinant of the inflammatory response in the lung.