Atypical Visual Saliency in Autism Spectrum Disorder Quantified through Model-Based Eye Tracking

Shuo Wang, Ming Jiang, Xavier Morin Duchesne, Elizabeth A. Laugeson, Daniel P. Kennedy, Ralph Adolphs, Qi Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

202 Scopus citations


The social difficulties that are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are thought to arise, at least in part, from atypical attention toward stimuli and their features. To investigate this hypothesis comprehensively, we characterized 700 complex natural scene images with a novel three-layered saliency model that incorporated pixel-level (e.g., contrast), object-level (e.g., shape), and semantic-level attributes (e.g., faces) on 5,551 annotated objects. Compared with matched controls, people with ASD had a stronger image center bias regardless of object distribution, reduced saliency for faces and for locations indicated by social gaze, and yet a general increase in pixel-level saliency at the expense of semantic-level saliency. These results were further corroborated by direct analysis of fixation characteristics and investigation of feature interactions. Our results for the first time quantify atypical visual attention in ASD across multiple levels and categories of objects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)604-616
Number of pages13
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 4 2015


  • Attention
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Center bias
  • Eye tracking
  • Faces
  • Saliency
  • Semantics
  • Social cognition


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