Four different combinations of monoclonal antibodies against rat ICAM- 1, CD-11a, and CD-18 were utilized to determine the relative importance of LFA-1, Mac-1, and ICAM-1 in a rat model of severe lung allograft reperfusion injury. Negative control animals were given phosphate buffered saline (the carrier solution for the antibodies), while positive control animals were rendered neutropenic by the administration of a polyclonal mouse IgG. Antibodies were given with the donor lung flush, prior to left lung graft reperfusion, or both. Isolated graft function was determined 24 hr after implantation by arterial blood gas (ABG), and after sacrifice the native and transplanted lungs underwent bronchoalveolar lavage for alveolar protein qnantitation, cell count and differential, and myeloperoxidase assay. Additionally, whole lung homogenates were assayed for myeloperoxidase activity. We found that the combination of anti-ICAM-1 (1 mg/kg) added to the donor lung flush, and anti-CD11a, anti-CD18, and anti-ICAM-1 (2 mg/kg i.v. of each) given to the recipient prior to reperfusion, resulted in significantly improved lung graft pAO2 by ABG, and decreased alveolar protein, cell count, and myeloperoxidase activity compared with control animals. Improvement was less than that seen in the neutropenic recipients, however. We conclude that LFA-1, Mac-1, and ICAM-1 are all important adhesion molecules in lung allograft reperfusion injury-yet even with antibody blockade of all three there are additional mechanisms allowing for neutrophil influx into the lungs.