The conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of the ATP-binding domain encoded by the yeast RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, and RFC4 genes was mutated to glutamic acid. Complexes of replication factor C with a N-terminal truncation (A2-273) of the Rfc1 subunit (RFC) containing a single mutant subunit were overproduced in Escherichia coli for biochemical analysis. All of the mutant RFC complexes were capable of interacting with PCNA. Complexes containing a rfc1-K359E mutation were similar to wild type in replication activity and ATPase activity; however, the mutant complex showed increased susceptibility to proteolysis. In contrast, complexes containing either a rfc2-K71E mutation or a rfc3-K59E mutation were severely impaired in ATPase and clamp loading activity. In addition to their defects in ATP hydrolysis, these complexes were defective for DNA binding. A mutant complex containing the rfc4-K55E mutation performed as well as a wild type complex in clamp loading, but only at very high ATP concentrations. Mutant RFC complexes containing rfc2-K71R or rfc3-K59R, carrying a conservative lysine → arginine mutation, had much milder clamp loading defects that could be partially (rfc2-K71R) or completely (rfc3-K59R) suppressed at high ATP concentrations.