ATM gene regulates oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced nuclear factor-κB DNA-binding activity and downstream apoptotic cascade in mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cells

Ke Jie Yin, Shang Der Chen, Jin Moo Lee, Jan Xu, Chung Y. Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose - Cells lacking the ATM (ataxia telangectasia mutated) gene are hypersensitive to DNA damage caused by a variety of insults. ATM may regulate oxidative stress-induced signaling cascades involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is upstream of a wide variety of stress-responsive genes. We investigated the potential interaction of ATM and NF-κB after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cerebral endothelial cells (CECs). Methods - Primary cultures of mouse CECs were subjected to OGD in the absence or presence of ATM antisense oligonucleotides or the NF-κB inhibitor SN50. ATM expression was determined with the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, and NF-κB activity was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cells were assessed for mitochondrial DNA damage with the use of long polymerase chain reaction and were assessed for caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity with the use of fluorogenic substrates. Cell death was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide and LDH release. Results - OGD stimulated ATM gene expression at the mRNA and protein level in CECs as early as 1 hour after OGD initiation. ATM gene knockdown with the use of an antisense oligonucleotide suppressed OGD-induced ATM protein expression, which was accompanied by an attenuation of NF-κB activation and the subsequent expression of downstream genes, including the antiapoptotic gene c-IAP2. ATM knockdown also accentuated OGD-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8, leading to enhanced CEC death. The specific NF-κB inhibitor SN50 mimicked the effects of ATM knockdown. Conclusions - We conclude that ATM may play a cytoprotective role in OGD-induced CEC death via a NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2471-2477
Number of pages7
JournalStroke
Volume33
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2002

Keywords

  • Ataxia telangectasia
  • Cell death
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Endothelium, vascular
  • Genetics
  • Glucose
  • NF-kappa B
  • Oxygen

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