A cusp theorem is proved that relates the zero-separation value and slope of two-particle position correlation functions in quantum many-body systems with Coulombic interactions. The theorem is independent of the particle type and symmetry of the wave function. Its proof uses only the integral form of the Schrödinger equation and the continuity and exponential decay of the wave function. It is used to derive a sum rule for the electron-gas structure factor and an exact statement about the screening of point charges. Applications to atomic-orbital-based calculations for H2 and metallic H are described.