The generation of ciliary waveforms requires the spatial and temporal regulation of dyneins. This review catalogues many of the asymmetric structures and proteins in the cilia of Chlamydomonas, a unicellular alga with two cilia that are used for motility in liquid medium. These asymmetries, which have been identified through mutant analysis, cryo-EM tomography and proteomics, provide a wealth of information to use for modelling how waveforms are generated and propagated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20190153
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1792
StatePublished - Feb 17 2020


  • Chlamydomonas
  • Cryo-EM tomography
  • Dynein arms
  • Mutational analysis


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