Monitoring one's performance helps detect errors and adapt to prevent future mistakes. However, elevated performance monitoring is associated with increased checking behaviors and perfectionism and is characteristic of multiple psychiatric disorders. Understanding how heightened performance monitoring in early childhood relates to subsequent brain connectivity may elucidate mechanistic risk factors that influence brain and psychiatric outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between performance monitoring in preschool-aged children and functional connectivity during adolescence. In the current prospective longitudinal study, we performed seed-based functional connectivity analysis using a dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) seed to assess brain–behavior relationships between observationally coded performance monitoring in preschool-aged children and adolescent functional connectivity (n = 79). We also utilized enrichment analysis to investigate network-level connectome-wide associations. Seed-based analysis revealed negative correlations between preschool performance monitoring and adolescent fc between dACC and orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while a positive correlation was observed between dACC-occipital cortex connectivity. Enrichment analysis revealed a negative correlation between preschool performance monitoring and connectivity between motor (MOT) - cingulo-opercular (CO) and salience (SN) - Reward (REW) and a positive correlation with MOT-DMN, and cerebellum (CB) - motor connectivity. Elevated performance monitoring in early childhood is associated with functional connectivity during adolescence in regions and networks associated with cognitive control, sensorimotor processing and cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortico (CTSC) aberrations. These regions and networks are implicated in psychiatric disorders characterized by elevated performance monitoring. Findings shed light on a mechanistic risk factor in early childhood with long-term associations with neural functioning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-27
Number of pages13
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Development
  • Functional connectivity
  • Network analysis
  • Performance monitoring
  • fMRI


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