Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with increased risk for unfavorable outcomes such as deficits in attentional control and related brain structure alterations. Crucially, PTB is more likely to occur within the context of poverty. The current study examined associations between PTB and inhibitory control (IC) implicated brain regions/tracts and task performance, as well as the moderating role of early life poverty on the relation between PTB and IC-implicated regions/tracts/task performance. 2,899 children from the ABCD study were sampled for this study. Mixed effects models examined the relation between PTB and subsequent IC performance as well as prefrontal gray matter volume, white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD). Household income was examined as a moderator. PTB was significantly associated with less improvement in IC task performance over time and decreased FA in left uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Early life poverty moderated the relation between PTB and both CB FA and UF MD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Early life poverty
  • Inhibitory control
  • Neuroimaging
  • Preterm birth


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