Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) are major components of the renin-angiotensin systems. An association between myocardial infarction (MI) and the ACE DD genotype of the insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene has been reported. However, other similarly designed studies have not found such an association. Angiotensin II, the product of AGT, has a direct effect on vascular tone; and a variant in the AGT gene has been found to be associated with MI in the Japanese. This case-control study was initiated to investigate whether the ACEI/D and AGT M235T polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and MI. Our study groups were composed of participants in the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study (FHS) selected from three population-based studies; two Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) centers (Forsyth County, NC, and Minneapolis, MN), and the Framingham Heart Study. In multivariate analysis within ARIC Caucasians, a significant positive association was found between CHD (controls = 230, cases = 232) and the AGT TT genotype (P = 0.022; OR = 1.84, 1.09-3.10 95% CI). When we restricted the analysis to a low-risk group for CHD (controls = 70, cases = 35) an interaction between the ACE DD and AGT TT genotypes was significant (P = 0.025; OR = 5.02 1.22-20.6 95% CI). After further subsetting low-risk cases to those with a denifite MI (controls = 74, cases = 16), we found that the association with the ACE DD genotype was also significant (P = 0.013, OR = 3.94, 1.28-12.2 95% CI). Comparable tests in the Framingham sample failed to support an association of these markers with CHD. In conclusion, within selected groups the ACE D and AGT 235T alleles are statistically associated with CHD and MI, and there is a synergistic interaction between the two alleles. These results and those from previous studies together suggest that the association of these two loci is neither strong nor consistent and involves a complex interaction among risk factors and genotypes.
- case-control study
- gene interactions