PURPOSE: To study the possible association of silicone-breast-implant exposure and immunologic abnormalities within the Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From this cohort, we randomly selected 200 women who had been exposed to silicone breast implants and who had never reported connective tissue diseases during 14 years of follow-up, and 500 age-matched, nonexposed women, including 100 with definite connective tissue diseases validated by medical record review, 100 with at least one symptom of a connective tissue disease, 100 with diabetes, and 200 healthy controls. Assays for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), including anti-dsDNA, anti-ssDNA, anti-Sm/RNP/Ro/La, and anti-Scl-70, rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulins, serum complement, and C-reactive protein level, and anticardiolipin, antithyroglobulin, antithyroid microsomal, and antisilicone antibodies were performed by standard techniques in blood samples collected in 1989 or 1990 before collection of silicone-breast- implant exposure data in 1992. RESULTS: ANA was positive (≥1:40) in 14% of women with silicone breast implants compared with 20% of healthy women (P = 0.11). Rheumatoid factor was positive (≥1:40) in 5% of women with silicone breast implants and 2% of healthy women (P = 0.16). Women with silicone breast implants had a significantly higher frequency of anti-ssDNA antibodies than healthy women (41% and 29%, P = 0.012). Duration of implant was associated with a higher frequency of anti-ssDNA antibodies (P = 0.03) but not with ANA or rheumatoid factor. No other significant differences in the frequencies of autoantibodies were observed in silicone breast implant- exposed women. Antisilicone antibodies were not found in any sample. CONCLUSION: We found no increased frequency of any immunologic abnormalities in women exposed to silicone breast implants, except for anti-ssDNA, which has unknown clinical relevance.