Genetic factors influence blood pressure (BP) response to the cold pressor test (CPT), which is a phenotype related to hypertension risk. We examined the association between variants of the α-Adducin (ADD1) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) Β-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) genes and BP response to the CPT. A total of 1998 Han Chinese participants from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity completed the CPT. The area under the curve (AUC) above the baseline BP during the CPT was used to measure the BP response. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADD1 and GNB3 genes were selected and genotyped. Both single-marker and haplotype association analyses were conducted using linear mixed models. The rs17833172 and rs3775067 SNPs of the ADD1 gene and the rs4963516 SNP of the GNB3 gene were significantly associated with the BP response to CPT, even after adjusting for multiple testing. For the ADD1 gene, the AA genotype of SNP rs17833172 was associated with lower systolic BP (SBP) reactivity (P<0.0001) and faster BP recovery (P=0.0003). The TT genotype of rs3775067 was associated with slower SBP recovery (P=.004). For the GNB3 gene, the C allele of SNP rs4963516 was associated with faster diastolic BP recovery (P=0.002) and smaller overall AUC (P=0.003). Haplotype analysis indicated that the CCGC haplotype of ADD1 constructed by rs1263359, rs3775067, rs4961 and rs4963 was significantly associated with the BP response to CPT. These data suggest that genetic variants of the ADD1 and GNB3 genes may have important roles in BP response to the CPT. Future studies aimed at replicating these novel findings are warranted.
- G protein
- blood pressure
- cold pressor test
- single-nucleotide polymorphism