We report the mapping of the human and mouse genes for transcription factor GATA-4, a newly identified member of DNA-binding proteins involved in lineage determination. The human GATA4 gene was assigned to the short arm of human chromosome 8 using genomic DNAs from human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines. Southern blot analyses indicated the presence of a human-specific 7.6-kb fragment that was observed only in DNA from the hybrid cells containing human chromosome 8 or the proximal region of its short arm. The mouse Gata4 gene was mapped to chromosome 14, closely linked to Clu (clusterin), using genomic DNAs from a (C57BL/6J × Mus spretus)F1 × M. spretus backcross. This mapping assignment places the Gata4 gene in the vicinity of the mouse Ds (disorganization) locus, a dominant gain-of-function mutation affecting embryonic development. We speculate that Ds is caused by a mutation in the Gata4 gene, ectopic expression of GATA-4, or a mutation in another lineage determination gene closely linked to Gata4.