Objective: We compared temperament and character traits in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP) and healthy control (HC) subjects. Method: Sixty nine subjects (38 BP and 31 HC), 8-17 years old, were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime. Temperament and character traits were measured with parent and child versions of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Results: BP subjects scored higher on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and fantasy subscales, and lower on reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness compared to HC (all p < 0.007), by child and parent reports. These findings were consistent in both children and adolescents. Higher parent-rated novelty seeking, lower self-directedness, and lower cooperativeness were associated with co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lower parent-rated reward dependence was associated with co-morbid conduct disorder, and higher child-rated persistence was associated with co-morbid anxiety. Conclusions: These findings support previous reports of differences in temperament in BP children and adolescents and may assist in a greater understating of BP children and adolescents beyond mood symptomatology.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2009|