Objective: To compare the effect of early and late intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation on additional brain injury and ventricular volume using term-equivalent age-MRI. Study design: In the Early vs Late Ventricular Intervention Study (ELVIS) trial, 126 preterm infants ≤34 weeks of gestation with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation were randomized to low-threshold (ventricular index >p97 and anterior horn width >6 mm) or high-threshold (ventricular index >p97 + 4 mm and anterior horn width >10 mm) groups. In 88 of those (80%) with a term-equivalent age-MRI, the Kidokoro Global Brain Abnormality Score and the frontal and occipital horn ratio were measured. Automatic segmentation was used for volumetric analysis. Results: The total Kidokoro score of the infants in the low-threshold group (n = 44) was lower than in the high-threshold group (n = 44; median, 8 [IQR, 5-12] vs median 12 [IQR, 9-17], respectively; P <.001). More infants in the low-threshold group had a normal or mildly increased score vs more infants in the high-threshold group with a moderately or severely increased score (46% vs 11% and 89% vs 54%, respectively; P =.002). The frontal and occipital horn ratio was lower in the low-threshold group (median, 0.42 [IQR, 0.34-0.63]) than the high-threshold group (median 0.48 [IQR, 0.37-0.68], respectively; P =.001). Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volumes could be calculated in 47 infants and were smaller in the low-threshold group (P =.03). Conclusions: More brain injury and larger ventricular volumes were demonstrated in the high vs the low-threshold group. These results support the positive effects of early intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Trial Registration: ISRCTN43171322.
- posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation