Assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma

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Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to the general population. This risk is highest during the first year of diagnosis and subsequently decreases over time. Development of VTE in patients with MM is associated with inferior outcomes, with patients with VTE and MM having an increased risk of death compared to those with MM without VTE. Primary thromboprophylaxis has the potential to decrease risk of (K.M. Sanfilippo) in MM and improve outcomes. Current studies assessing thromboprophylaxis in MM excluded patients at high risk of VTE. A meta-analysis of trials of primary thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory cancer patients at high risk of VTE identified by use of a risk-prediction score found a reduction in risk of VTE with prophylaxis with no significant increase in risk of major bleeding. However, these trials contained relatively few patients with MM. Three clinical risk prediction scores are available to assess risk of VTE in MM: 1) the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG)/National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN); 2) the SAVED score; and 3) the IMPEDE VTE score. The latter two have recently been shown to outperform the IMWG/ NCCN score for predicting VTE in MM. Biomarkers have the potential to improve prediction of VTE in patients with MM. Future research should focus on the addition of biomarkers to available risk scores in MM to improve discrimination in this high-risk patient population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S74-S78
JournalThrombosis Research
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Clinical prediction rule
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Primary prevention
  • Risk
  • Venous thromboembolism


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