Assessing cancer risk in the anterior part of the prostate using micro-ultrasound: validation of a novel distinct protocol

Sandy Schaer, Arnas Rakauskas, Julien Dagher, Stefano La Rosa, Jake Pensa, Wayne Brisbane, Leonard Marks, Adam Kinnaird, Robert Abouassaly, Eric Klein, Lewis Thomas, Jean Yves Meuwly, Pamela Parker, Beat Roth, Massimo Valerio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop and validate a micro-ultrasound risk score that predicts the likelihood of significant prostate cancer in the anterior zone. Methods: Patients were enrolled from three expert institutions familiar with micro-ultrasound. The study was conducted in two phases. First, the PRI-MUS anterior score was developed by assessing selected prostate videos from patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy. Second, seven urology readers with varying levels of experience in micro-ultrasound examination evaluated prostate loops according to the PRI-MUS anterior score. Each reader watched the videos and recorded the likelihood of the presence of significant cancer in the anterior part of the prostate in a three-point scale. The coherence among the readers was calculated using the Fleiss kappa and the Cronbach alpha. Results: A total of 102 selected prostate scans were used to develop the risk assessment for anterior zone cancer in the prostate. The score comprised three categories: likely, equivocal, and unlikely. The median (IQR) sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the seven readers were 72% (68–84), 68% (64–84), 75% (72–81), and 73% (71–80), respectively. The mean SD ROC AUC was 0.75 ± 2%, while the Fleiss kappa and the Cronbach alpha were 0.179 and 0.56, respectively. Conclusion: Micro-ultrasound can detect cancerous lesions in the anterior part of the prostate. When combined with the PRI-MUS protocol to assess the peripheral part, it enables an assessment of the entire prostate gland. Pending external validation, the PRI-MUS anterior score developed in this study might be implemented in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3325-3331
Number of pages7
JournalWorld Journal of Urology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Micro-ultrasound
  • Prostate biopsy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Transitional zone


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