Arginine (CGC) codon targeting in the human prostacyclin receptor gene (PTGIR) and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR)

Jeremiah Stitham, Eric J. Arehart, Scott Gleim, Karen Douville, Todd MacKenzie, John Hwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The human prostacyclin receptor (hIP) has recently been recognized as an important seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that plays critical roles in atheroprevention and cardioprotection. To date, four non-synonymous genetic variants have been identified, two of which occur at the same Arg amino acid position (R212H, R212C). This observation instigated further genetic screening for prostacyclin receptor variants on 1455 human genomic samples. A total of 31 distinct genetic variants were detected, with 6 (19%) involving Arg residues. Distinct differences in location and frequencies of genetic variants were noted between Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic and African Americans, with the most changes noted in the Asian cohort. From the sequencing results, three Arg-targeted changes at the same 212 position within the third cytoplasmic loop of the human prostacyclin (hIP) receptor were detected: 1) R212C (CGC→TGC), 2) R212H (CGC→CAC), and 3) R212R (CGC→CGT). Three additional Arg codon variants (all exhibiting the same CGC to TGC change) were also detected, R77C, R215C, and R279C. Analysis (GPCR and SNP databases) of 200 other GPCRs, with recorded non-synonymous mutations, confirmed a high frequency of Arg-targeted missense mutations, particularly within the important cytoplasmic domain. Preferential nucleotide changes (at Arg codons), were observed involving cytosine (C) to thymine (T) (pyrimidine to pyrimidine), as well as guanine (G) to adenine (A) (purine to purine) (p < 0.001, Pearson's goodness-of-fit test). Such targeting of Arg residues, leading to significant changes in coding amino acid size and/or charge, may have potentially-important structural and evolutionary implications on the hIP and GPCRs in general. In the case of the human prostacyclin receptor, such alterations may reduce the cardio-, vasculo-, and cytoprotective effects of prostacyclin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-187
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2007


  • Arginine
  • Codon
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Genetic variant
  • Human prostacyclin receptor
  • Nonsynonomous mutation
  • Prostacyclin


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